The Evil Eye: Eye Gaze and Competitiveness in Social Decision Making

Abstract

We demonstrate that a person’s eye gaze and his/her competitiveness are closely intertwined in social decision making. In an exploratory examination of this relationship, Study 1 uses field data from a high-stakes TV game show to demonstrate that the frequency by which contestants gaze at their opponent’s eyes predicts their defection in a variant on the prisoner’s dilemma. Studies 2 and 3 use experiments to examine the underlying causality and demonstrate that the relationship between gazing and competitive behavior is bi-directional. In Study 2, fixation on the eyes, compared to the face, increases competitive behavior toward the target in an ultimatum game. In Study 3, we manipulate the framing of a negotiation (cooperative vs. competitive) and use an eye tracker to measure fixation number and time spent fixating on the counterpart’s eyes. We find that a competitive negotiation elicits more gazing, which in turn leads to more competitive behavior.

Publication
In European Journal of Social Psychology
Date

ge thumbnail (optional) image_preview = “”

Is this a selected publication? (true/false)

selected = false

Projects (optional).

Associate this publication with one or more of your projects.

Simply enter the filename (excluding ‘.md’) of your project file in content/project/.

Links (optional).

Custom links (optional).

Uncomment line below to enable. For multiple links, use the form [{...}, {...}, {...}].

url_custom = [{name = “Journal article”, url = “http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2336"}, {name=“Working paper on SSRN”,url=“https://ssrn.com/abstract=3055092"}, {name=“Media: De Tijd (Dutch)“, url=“files/Loss DeTijd.pdf”},]

Does the content use math formatting?

math = true

Does the content use source code highlighting?

highlight = false

Featured image

Place your image in the static/img/ folder and reference its filename below, e.g. image = "example.jpg".

[header] image = “” caption = “”

+++